De Caluwé and Vermaak

De Caluwé and Vermaak (2004) present five fundamentally different ways of thinking about change, each representing different beliefs systems and convictions about how change works, the kind of interventions that are effective, how to change people, etc. They are labeled by color: yellow, blue, red, green, and white print thinking.


1. White-print thinking

The principle underlying white-print thinking is that the colour white reflects all colours. In other words, white-print thinking allows room for self-organization and evolution thinking. It denotes openness and this provides the broadest form to lead to the desired changes. This means that the change itself is also a permanent process. Aiming for change means removing obstacles, observing what is happening, analyzing and acting on feelings (internal security). Meaning is crucial in this way of thinking.

2. Green-print thinking

Green-print thinking is about the growth and development of the desired changes. It is about the ideas of people (with their motivation and learning capacity) by means of reflection, knowledge sharing and awareness. The result is not always predictable, as this depends strongly on learning capacity.

3. Red-print thinking

The starting principle of red-print thinking is the human factor. People must be influenced, attracted (for examples with the aid of rewards) and stimulated. HRM management, including HRM tools, are the key to accomplishing the desired changes. Here, it is mainly about responding to the soft aspects of an organization.

4. Blue-print thinking

Blue-print thinking is based on the rational design and implementation of the desired changes. It mainly concerns the controlling, planning and managing of the changes, so that the result is both predictable and clear. The intended changes are especially aimed at matter and form. Irrational aspects are subordinate.

5. Yellow-print thinking

Yellow-print thinking is about power. By managing interests and striving for feasibility within complex objectives, the desired changes are aimed at. The common interests are not always of prime importance and politics play an important role. By having power, the desired changes can be enforced. Obtaining balance is a continuous challenge.

More info can be found here (NL): http://www.leren.nl/cursus/management/verandermanagement/vijf-kleuren-om-te-veranderen.html.



DE CALUWÉ, Léon and VERMAAK, Hans (2004). Change Paradigms: An Overview. Organization Development Journal, 2004.


SWOT analysis

SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your Strengths and Weaknesses, and for identifying both the Opportunities open to you and the Threats you face.


  • What advantages does your organization have?
  • What do you do better than anyone else?
  • What unique or lowest-cost resources can you draw upon that others can’t?
  • What do people in your market see as your strengths?
  • What factors mean that you “get the sale”?


  • What could you improve?
  • What should you avoid?
  • What are people in your market likely to see as weaknesses?
  • What factors lose you sales?


  • What good opportunities can you spot?
  • What interesting trends are you aware of?

Useful opportunities can come from such things as:

  • Changes in technology and markets on both a broad and narrow scale.
  • Changes in government policy related to your field.
  • Changes in social patterns, population profiles, lifestyle changes, and so on.
  • Local events.


  • What obstacles do you face?
  • What are your competitors doing?
  • Are quality standards or specifications for your job, products or services changing?
  • Is changing technology threatening your position?
  • Do you have bad debt or cash-flow problems?
  • Could any of your weaknesses seriously threaten your business?


Connectivism – my own little experiment

Ok, I’m convinced about the pros of Connectivism. Not in every circumstance or subject, but as Hung (2001) advocates ”teachers are ‘pedagogical engineers’ with the responsibility to plan a lesson(s) with the most relevant instructional approaches and technologies at his or her disposal.”

I decided to try it in my own course. I teach Web design in a class of unemployed students in which they get different courses. During their course Drupal (which is a strong and difficult CMS) we also study the use of Joomla and WordPress. I decided to become a coach, instead of a teacher. I made some screencasts (6 times 5 minutes – figure 1). They also got access to my (own written) course material (figure 2) and I shared some resources. I set up a web conference (figure 3) in which I shared my resources (figure 4). Continue Reading


Connectivism, the learning theory which brings parts together

An innovation in education that really must be on board of my blog, is Connectivism. Honesty above all: it was Lars who introduced me the term connectivism.

Connectivsm was introduced and developed by George Siemens and Stephen Downes. It is a new learning theory which focusses on learning using a network. Learning is making connections with other people and resources (books, websites, machines, etc). Downes states that “knowledge is distributed across a network of connections, and therefore that learning consists of the ability to construct and traverse those networks.” In the first module (TEL1), we were introduced 3 learning theories: Behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism. Siemens (2004) however believes that “these theories, however, were developed in a time when learning was not impacted through technology”.

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The use of Twitter in the classroom

Social media are intruding in education. People are using on YouTube, Twitter and Facebook during my lessons. The school board made the decision to limit the access to Facebook because of the high use of bandwidth. Most students used Facebook for recreational nature.

The first time a student used Twitter during my lessons to check the correctness of my information, was really confronting. My first reaction was that it was “bad”. I wanted the school board to stop the access to Twitter. But maybe I was wrong. Isn’t checking the correctness of information a form of social constructivism and therefor a good thing to do? I thing many teachers will have difficulties with students checking their curriculum. In my case, my information actually was correct, but the people on Twitter disputed the correctness by personal preferences. Nevertheless, the student’s suspicion was strengthened with the fact my information was wrong. This brings me to an important question. How to solve this?


Is assessment needed?

assessmentDuring our last session, we had an interesting discussion: is assessment needed and in which form? How to make sure we don’t over-assess?

Assessment in education, defined as the process of determining whether students have attained curricular goals (Choppin, 1990), is something what seems to be mandatory. Since we are using a Learning Management System (Moodle) and teaching using Video Conferencing (Webex), my colleagues and I need to assess more. Ten years ago our students needed to sit one exam. Nowadays our students are assessed each lesson, are being evaluated (SAM) on their skills ànd have to sit one exam. Smells like over-assessment. But why? My opinion is that the main reason of these assessments is having proof for inspection. There seems to be a need for alternative assessment. Reeves and Okey (1996) claim that alternative assessment is absolutely required by constructivist learning environments, whether these environments are established in real world, classroom or virtual contexts. Their outcome is the Portfolio assessment.

In colleges more and more students run to courts to contents their grades. School boards require assessment and proof. Two years ago a student who didn’t pass (actually he failed on 12 of the 14 courses) wrote objection to the mayor (head of the school authority). Something school boards don’t know to appreciate.

But still… Every time one class graduates, they emphasize they want assessment. Meri mentioned it during the third session and she seems to be right. Students are better skilled when the had more assessment. The truth seems to lie midway.



The need of a SAKET

jenkinsMy biggest computer-related problem is the administration of sources, tools and information. There are many good websites and Google helps to find them, but how to administer the bookmarks, ideas, etc. Of course sites as diigo help, but not entirely.

There are existing many free tools and they do all kinds of things, but I think there is one general tool needed which combines them. There is a need of one tool that mentions “already exists” when you’re about to write course materials. Once there was a time there were 5 different devices to take pictures, record video’s, call people, listen to the radio and use gps. Then there was the smartphone. One device that combined these 5 functions. I think there is a tool needed, let’s call it a SAKET: a Swiss Army Knife for Educational Tools

In all case, this SAKET would help a lot in Jenkins’ Participation Gap, by helping to find the right tool for the right job. In my situation, I’m not really familiar with the gap. My students are generally speaking familiar with IT and have the right skills to search and explore the web.


What facilitates the adoption of new ideas

Now and then I tweet my innovation related questions. I don’t really rely on the responses, although it is nice to see strange people contribute using social media. On my question “what facilitates the adoption of new ideas”, I got an interesting answer: “show cases of good practice, so people will see the advantages”. Interesting!

Four years ago we (my school in Belgium) started using a web conferencing tool, called Web ex. We were the first school in the country who actually used distance learning by video conferencing. After one year, we presented the results to twenty other schools. This could have been a case of good practice to some school boards and teachers.

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Innovation in education: Flipping the classroom

I collected some very exciting innovations and wonder whether they can be useful in education

2012-07-31 11.19.29Flipping the classroom

A year ago I discovered a video on YouTube from Jelmer Evers, who uses web 2.0 tools and explained the concept of a flipped classroom. Evers teaches history and creates digital lessons using the combination of Prezi, Camtasia and YouTube. His students are very excited by the concept. Some students even learn by iPod while running or traveling by train.

In a flipped classroom, the teacher makes screencasts and other digital materials. The students watch and listen these at home. During the lessons there is more time for exercise and questions, because the theory is already learned.

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