Change Models

There are different change models. I found 3 different models.

Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model

Step 1: Create Urgency

Step 2: Form a Powerful Coalition

Step 3: Create a Vision for Change

Step 4: Communicate the Vision

Step 5: Remove Obstacles

Step 6: Create Short-Term Wins

Step 7: Build on the Change

Step 8: Anchor the Changes in Corporate Culture


Some other change models:

Lewin’s Change Management Model

  1. Unfreeze
  2. Change
  3. Refreeze


The Burke-Litwin change model

1. External Environment: The key external factors that have an impact on the organization must be identified and their direct and indirect impact on the organization should be clearly established.

2. Mission and Strategy: the vision, mission and the strategy of the organization, as defined by the top management should be examined in terms of the employees’ point-of-view about them.

3. Leadership: A study of the leadership structure of the organizationshould be carried out, which clearly identifies the chief role models in the organization.

4. Organizational Culture: An organizational culture study should seek information on the explicit as well as the implied rules, regulations, customs, principles and values that influence the organizational behavior.

5. Structure: The study of structure should not be confined to hierarchical structure; rather it should be a function based structure focusing on the responsibility, authority, communication, decision making and control structure that exists between the people of the organization.

6. Systems: Systems includes all types of policies and procedures with regards to both the people and the operations of the organization.

7. Management Practices: This would entail a study of how well the mangers conform to the organization’s strategy when dealing with employees and the resources.

8. Work Unit Climate: It is a collective study of how the employees think, feel and what do they expect. The kind of relationships the employees share with their team members and members of other teams is also an important aspect of work unit climate.

9. Tasks and Skills: This involves understanding what a specific job position demands and the kind of kind of skills and knowledge that an employee must have in order to fulfill the task responsibilities of that job position. It’s important to see how well jobs and employees have been matched.

10. Individual Values and Needs: This dimension seeks to explore the employee’s opinion about their work so as to identify the quality factors that will result in job enrichment and better job satisfaction.

11. Motivation Level: Identifying the motivation level of the employees will make it easier to determine how willingly they would put in their efforts to achieve organizational goals. This would also involve identifying motivational triggers.

12. Individual and Overall Performance: This dimension takes into account the level of performance, on individual and organizational levels, in key areas like productivity, quality, efficiency, budget and customer satisfaction etc.



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